The population is 130 000.
The main center of the Surkhandarya region. Termez is located in the southern part of Uzbekistan, on the right bank of the Amu Darya river, near the Afghan border.
The altitude is 310 meters above sea level.
The climate is continental, with hot, dry, even heat in the summer (the hottest region of the country, the highest temperature was 49.5 degrees on July 21, 1914). Winters are mild and short. The normal annual temperature is + 16-18°C, and + 28-32°C in July. In January, the average temperature is -2.8 – +3.6°C.
708 km. from Tashkent.
Termez is one of the most ancient cities of Central Asia and had its own place in the formation of the ancient civilizations of the East. According to archaeological research and writing sources, it was founded in the 5th century BC. During its long history this beautiful city set up cultural and trade relations with Sogd, Khorezm, Marghiyona, India and Parthian states.
From the 3rd century BC until the end of the 2nd century, Termez was the most developed political, economic and cultural center of Bactria.
The golden age and the most prosperous period of Termez was during the reign of Kushan Empire. During this period, it expanded its territories, becoming the largest city in the north of Bactria. Elephant ivory chess pieces found in Dalverzintepe, made in the form of elephants and bulls, are now the most ancient chess pieces ever found by archaeologists (2nd century). At the same time, this great city was one of the largest centers of idolatry, and Buddhism spread to other areas of Asia like China, Tibet and South-East Asia through Termez.
With Termezshahs as its capital, this city was a castle with a territory of 70 hectares before the Arab invasion.
In the 10th to the 12th centuries, Termez was a center of handicrafts and trade on the Silk Road inside Tokharistan, with a territory of over 500 hectares.
Till the beginning of the 13th century, Termez was part of the Khorezm state, of Gaznevids, of Karakhanites, karakhitays, Seljuks.
In 1220, Termez was destroyed by Genghis Khan. In the 14th century, Termez was rebuilt next to the coast of Surkhandarya. The city experienced some changes to its name, e.g. Tarmita, Antiochiy-Tarmita, Tarmiz, but always close to its actual name.
When the great conqueror Temur founded his empire in Mavorounakhr (1370), Termez became a part of his huge territory. In 1407, by the order of Temur`s grandson Khalil Sultan, the city of Termez was again restored.
In 1505, it became a part of Sheibanid’s kingdom. Later, in the second half of the eighteenth century it was completely destroyed because of civil war. In 1894, Termez was built in the place of Pattakesar village. Since 1916, with a railway construction Bukhara -Karshi-Termez the city has been experiencing economic growth on a par with the era of the Great Silk Road.
In 2002, the 2,500th anniversary of the city of Termez was celebrated at an international level.
Nowadays there is a University in the city, there are 20 schools, 10 colleges, aRegional Museum, Surkhandarya Archaeological Museum, the “Heritage” museum. There is a Musical Drama Theatre, a Puppet Theatre, four Libraries and a national park.
Between architectural and historical monuments there is the mausoleum of one of the most famous representative of Sufism, Al-Hakim al-Termizi, archaeological Buddhism sites such as the largest sanctuary Zurmala Stupa, the ruins of the Fayoztepa temple, Kirk kiz , Sultan Saadat architectural complex of Termez Saids who are considered to be descendants of the prophet Mohammed, Kokildor khanaga and Murch baba Mosque.