The population is more than 3.02 million.
Tashkent city is the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan, separate from the Tashkent region. The city is located in the north-eastern part of the country next to the Tien-Shan Mountains, in the valley of the River Chirchik at 440-480 meters above sea level.
The city is the 4th most populous in the CIS countries, after Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kiev, and is the largest city in Central Asia.
The climate is continental, the annual average temperature is +14°, the average temperature in January is -1°, the lowest temperature is -29°, the normal temperature in July is +28°. The highest temperature is +42°.
The population is international: there are Uzbeks, Russians, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Koreans, Hebrews, Ukrainians amongst others living there.
Tashkent city goes back 2200 years. During this time, the city turned from a simple castle surrounded by a wall of defense to one of the largest cities in the world, and to the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. For centuries, the city experienced hard battles, developments and crisis. The city was destroyed and rebuilt several times. During this period the name of the city changed several times, too.
According to legend, Tashkent was founded by Sacs nomad tribes in the 3rd century. Information about Chach or Shash appeared in ancient Chinese sources, in the sources of Arab travelers, as well as in ancient Turkic sources.
According to the Chinese sources dating back to the 4th century B.C. and the 5th century AD, the names of the city were Loyueni, Yuni, Chjechji Chjsi and Shi, which means in Chinese “stone”.
The first Turkic sources give the name of the city as Chach. During the period of the Arabs – as there is no sound “ch” in Arabic, the city was called “Shash”. In the early Middle Ages, the city was also famous with names like “Chach”, “Shash”, “Shoshkent”, “Madinat ash-Shash”, “Binkat” and “Tarzan”.
The first information about the city appeared in Khorezmi, Taberi and Istakhri works. In the 12th century in works of the famous scientists Abu Rayhan Biruni and Mahmud Qoshgariy, the city was mentioned under the name of Tashkent.
Beruniy wrote”Tashkent is a stone village”.
In the 8th century, the city was conquered by the Arabs, in the 9th to 10th centuries it became a part of Samanids, then in the 11th to 12th centuries it was a part of Karakhitays and Karakhanites, at the beginning of the 13th century it was destroyed by the Mongols. In the 14th to 15th centuries, during the reign of Amir Temur and Mirzo Ulugbek, one of the largest military bases was there. Later, until the time of the Russian invasion in the 19th century, the city was a part of Bukhara and Kokand khanates. In 1865 it was conquered by Tsarist Russia. Since 1930, the city has been the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Tashkent is one of the largest industrial-transportation crossroads and cultural centers in Central Asia. It boasts one of the few underground train systems in Central Asia, and the largest international airport. The residence of the President of Uzbekistan, Oliy Majlis (Parliament), The Cabinet of Ministers, foreign embassies and organizations belonging to the United Nations are located in Tashkent. The city is one of the biggest cities in Central Asia for large international conferences and meetings. More than 30 higher education institutions, 400 schools, 30 academic schools, 30 art schools, 50 vocational colleges, 16 museums, 13 theaters, 16 cultural attraction parks operate there at the moment.
In 2009, the 2200th anniversary of the city was widely celebrated and Tashkent was declared the Islamic Culture Center.
Sights: the ensemble of Hazrat Imam, Sheikh Zinedine mausoleum, Chopon Ota shrine, the mausoleums Shaykhantakhur and Yunuskhon , the madrasahs Ko’kaldosh and Abul Qasim, Independence Square, Amir Temur Square, the Museum of Applied Art, the Museum of the History of the peoples of Uzbekistan, Tashkent TV tower, Academic Theatre named after Alisher Navoiy, Alisher Navoiy National Park and others.